Research Output

Dealing with affective needs in e-learning: Contrasting two cases in two cultures.

  This chapter presents and contrasts descriptions of two cases of online affective support provided to support students engaged in higher level learning tasks. The cases are set in different cultures, centre upon different intended learning outcomes, and follow different tutorial styles. One (Eastern) tutor acted as a “shepherd leader” in response to needs arising in the Confucian Heritage Culture as the teacher promoted critical thinking, according to the Western model. The other (Western) tutor provided Rogerian facilitation of reflective learning journals, kept by students seeking to develop personal and professional capabilities. In both styles, affective support features strongly. The cultural and pedagogical comparisons between the cases have proved useful to the writers. These distinctions together with the similarities between the two online styles emerge in the comparisons.

Keywords: affective needs, asynchronous discussion, Confucian Heritage Culture, constructivism, critical thinking, facilitation, reflection, reflective learning journals, Rogerian, shepherd leadership, social-constructivist, student-centred, support.

  • Type:

    Book Chapter

  • Date:

    30 November 2008

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher


  • DOI:


  • Library of Congress:

    LB2300 Higher Education

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    378 Higher education


Chiu, Y. J. & Cowan, J. (2008). Dealing with affective needs in e-learning: Contrasting two cases in two cultures. In Olaniran, B. (Ed.). Cases on Successful E-Learning Practices in the Developed and Developing World: Methods for the Global Information Economy, 42-57. Hershey. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-942-7.ch004. ISBN 978-1605669427



Online learning; student support; learning objectives;

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