Research Output

Sustainable transport solution for a medium-sized town in Turkey—A case study.

  The United Nations projects that 60% of the world's population will be living in urban areas by 2030. Cities account for 2% of the world's area but 75% of the world's energy consumption. For over a century, the automobile has offered affordable freedom of movement within urban areas. However, with the current vehicle population exceeding 850 million, almost all of which are powered by internal combustion engines this situation is becoming unsustainable.

In this article a critical review of the present energy budget of Turkey and its over dependence on imported fuel oil to support the transport sector is carried out. By way of having a closer examination of the energy needs for the private vehicle fleet, experimental work was undertaken for one town in western Turkey—Bolu. The latter town represents a typical municipality in Turkey with the possibility of replication of the present work to other similar conurbations. The work entailed determination of the driving cycle. A software program that has been expressly developed for this type of exercise was then used to ascertain the savings in fossil fuel that may be achieved via use of solar PV-electric vehicles. It has been presently argued that the use of electricity-propelled, two- and four-wheelers offers a sustainable solution.

  • Type:


  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher


  • DOI:


  • Library of Congress:

    HE Transportation and Communications

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    388 Transportation; ground transportation


Muneer, T., Celik, A. N. & Caliskan, N. (2011). Sustainable transport solution for a medium-sized town in Turkey—A case study. Sustainable Cities and Society SCC. 1, 29-37. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2010.08.004. ISSN 2210-6707



Transport sector; electric vehicles; carbon footprint;

Monthly Views:

Available Documents