Research Output

The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria.

  Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4–5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents.

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  • Library of Congress:

    GE Environmental Sciences

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    363 Other social problems & services


Almasri, R., Muneer, T. & Cullinane, K. (2011). The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria. Energy Policy. 39, 3605-3611. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.03.062. ISSN 0301-4215



Transport; energy; air pollution; Syria; Middle East;

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