Research Output
Analysis of swimming technique: state of the art: applications and implications.
  Methods of analysing motion have advanced greatly in recent years due to improvement in technology as well as application of scientific approaches. Methods of analysis may involve video based techniques from which kinematics and kinetics can be derived or direct measurement of velocity and force using various velocities and force transducing devices. At the Centre for Aquatics Research and Education (CARE) we have developed methods based predominantly on analysis of video. Analysis based on video ranges from qualitative analysis without quantification of variables, to three-dimensional analysis of kinematics and kinetics from digitised body landmarks from several cameras. The purpose of this paper is to present video-based methods of collecting data, analysing data, and presenting results for different levels of analysis including qualitative analysis and simple quantitative analysis for immediate feedback, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) quantitative analysis of kinematics, and deriving forces from the whole body centre of mass. Examples of specific applications and implications are described.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    01 January 2006

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher

    Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, University of Porto

  • ISSN:



Sanders, R., Psycharakis, S., McCabe, C., Naemi, R., Connaboy, C., Li, S., …Spence, A. (2006). Analysis of swimming technique: state of the art: applications and implications. Revista portuguesa de ciências do desporto, 6, 20(S)-24(S)



Swimming; Technique; Kinematics; Applied forces; Coaching; Video recordings;

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