Research Output
Anchorage of coniferous trees relation to species, soil type and rooting depth.
  A database was constructed of tree-anchorage measurements from almost 2000 trees from 12 conifer species that were mechanically overturned on 34 sites in the United Kingdom between 1960 and 2000. Anchorage was compared among species, soil groups (freely-draining mineral, gleyed mineral, peaty mineral, and deep peat) and root depth classes (shallow, 80 cm) using regressions of critical turning moment against stem mass. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) was used as a benchmark because it formed the largest part of the database and was the only species with all soil-group and depth-class combinations. Anchorage of Sitka spruce was strongest on peat and poorest on gleyed mineral soils. Deep rooting increased critical turning moments by 10%-15% compared with trees of equivalent mass with shallower roots. Significantly better anchorage than Sitka spruce was found for grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), with various rooting depths on freely draining and gleyed mineral soils and for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) on medium-depth mineral soil. Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) had poorer anchorage than Sitka spruce over a range of soil groups and root depth classes. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) on shallow gleyed mineral soil, and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra subsp. laricio (Poir.) Maire) on medium depth mineral soil, also had poorer anchorage. Other combinations had similar anchorage to the equivalent Sitka spruce. These results are discussed with respect to the development of forest wind-risk models.

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  • Date:

    01 July 2006

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  • Library of Congress:

    SD Forestry

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    634.9 Forestry


Gardiner, B. A., Nicoll, B. C., Peace, A. J., & Rayner, B. (2006). Anchorage of coniferous trees relation to species, soil type and rooting depth. Canadian journal of forest research Revue canadienne de recherche forestière, 36(7), 1871-1883.


forest; wind risk; tree-anchorage; conifers; Sitka spruce; Picea sitchensis; grand fir; Abies grandis; Douglas-fir; Pseudotsuga menziesii; Lodgepole pine; Pinus contorta; Norway Spruce; Picea abies; Corsican pine; Pinus nigra subsp. laricio;

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