Research Output
A Forensic Audit of the Tor Browser Bundle
  The increasing use of encrypted data within file storage and in network communications leaves investigators with many challenges. One of the most challenging is the Tor protocol, as its main focus is to protect the privacy of the user, in both its local footprint within a host and over a network connection. The Tor browser, though, can leave behind digital artefacts which can be used by an investigator. This paper outlines an experimental methodology and provides results for evidence trails which can be used within real-life investigations.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    30 March 2019

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher

    Elsevier BV

  • DOI:


  • Cross Ref:


  • ISSN:


  • Library of Congress:

    QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    005.8 Data security

  • Funders:

    Edinburgh Napier Funded


Muir, M., Leimich, P., & Buchanan, W. J. (2019). A Forensic Audit of the Tor Browser Bundle. Digital Investigation, 29, 118-128.



Digital forensics, Tor, Windows 10,

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