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Acceptor and Donor Dopants in Potassium Sodium Niobate Based Ceramics
  B-site doping in potassium sodium niobate (KNN) with Mn2+ (Mn′′′Nb) and Ti4+ (Ti′Nb) dopants were soluble but prevented KNN from achieving a high relative density, while Sn4+ (Sn′Nb) was not soluble in the structure as evidenced by second phase peaks in X-ray diffraction (XRD) traces. However, SnO2 was an effective sintering aid in KNN-50/50. A-site doping with Sr2+ (Sr⋅(Na,K)) up to 1 mol% initially improved dielectric properties but higher sintering temperatures were required for compositions with >1 mol% Sr. Samples with 5% and 7% of Sr-doping completely shifted the transition of TO–T to below RT and broadened the TC peaks as the relaxor. All Ti-doped and Sr-doped compositions showed an increase in conductivity, manifested as high values of dielectric loss (tanδ). More than 1% of acceptor and donor dopants showed the ionic-type conduction mechanism, while 1% displayed the electronic mechanism as attributed from the strongly frequency-dependent tanδ. In conclusion, these samples have the potential to open up new applications in the field of electroceramics.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    08 July 2020

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  • Publisher

    Frontiers Media SA

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  • Funders:

    Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council


Hussain, F., Khesro, A., Lu, Z., Alotaibi, N., Mohamad, A. A., Wang, G., …Zhou, D. (2020). Acceptor and Donor Dopants in Potassium Sodium Niobate Based Ceramics. Frontiers in Materials, 7, Article 160.



acceptor doping, donor doping, solubility, KNN, dielectric properties

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    Acceptor And Donor Dopants In Potassium Sodium Niobate Based Ceramics


    © 2020 Hussain, Khesro, Lu, Alotaibi, Mohamad, Wang, Wang and Zhou. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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