Research Output
Application of immersive virtual reality mirror therapy for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: a scoping review
  Mirror therapy is a commonly used rehabilitation intervention in post stroke upper limb rehabilitation. Despite many potential technological developments, mirror therapy is routinely delivered through the use of a static mirror or mirror box. This review aims to synthesise evidence on the application of immersive virtual reality mirror therapy (IVRMT) in poststroke upper limb rehabilitation. A scoping review was performed on relevant English studies published between 2013 to 2023. Literature search was undertaken on APA PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science between August 5 and 17, 2023. Additional studies were included from Google Scholar and reference lists of identified articles. A total of 224 records were identified, of which 8 full-text articles were selected for review. All included studies were published between 2019 and 2023, and from high- and upper-middle-income nations. All the studies were experimental (n = 8). The total sample size in the studies was 259, most of whom were stroke patients with upper limb weakness (n = 184). This review identified three major themes and two sub-themes based on the contents of the studies conducted on the application of IVRMT: IVRMT’s technical application, feasibility and impact on clinical outcomes (motor recovery and adverse events). IVRMT was concluded to be a safe and feasible approach to post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation, offering enhanced engagement and motor recovery. However, more methodologically robust studies should be conducted to advance this area of practice, and to include a uniform IVRMT intervention protocol, dose, and use of outcome measure.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    29 April 2024

  • Publication Status:

    In Press

  • DOI:


  • ISSN:


  • Funders:

    Edinburgh Napier Funded



Poststroke rehabilitation, Upper limb rehabilitation, Virtual reality, Mirror therapy, Immersive virtual reality mirror therapy

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