Research Output
Beach Litter Sampling Strategies: is there a ‘Best’ Method?
  Ten methods for sampling beach litter were tested on 16 beaches located around the Firth of Forth, Scotland in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the various methods. Both fresh and/or accumulated litter were sampled. Some methods were more effective for recording gross amounts of litter. Maximum litter counts could be obtained by surveying the top boundary of the beach (e.g. vegetation line, retaining wall, rocks). Lowest amounts were obtained by surveying one five metre wide belt transect from the vegetation line to the shore. Some bias towards highlighting particular litter types was shown by specific methods. It was concluded that there were advantages and disadvantages for each method and that the aims of the study would in the end determine the method.

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  • Date:

    31 December 1999

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  • Library of Congress:

    GE Environmental Sciences

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    577.7 Marine ecology


Velander, K., & Mocogni, M. (1999). Beach Litter Sampling Strategies: is there a ‘Best’ Method?. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38(12), 1134-1140.



marine debris, beach litter, sampling methods, principal component analysis

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