Research Output

Designing blended spaces: historical echoes, testing a framework for digital tourism.

  This work relates heavily to blended space theory and the trajectories approach previously done in this field. Imaz and Benyon have introduced the ideas of conceptual blending to analyze developments in HCI and software engineering. Benford explains that User experiences can be described in terms of trajectories. We moved from this point and created Historical Echoes.

The project is created in Edinburgh, Scotland, aiming to produce and evaluate a visitor experience that enables them to serendipitously discover digital content when visiting an attraction, to be attracted to the exact location of the content by audio and to have an engaging and satisfying experience interacting with the blended space of physical location. The project was funded Smart Tourism programme and SICSA. It was designed and implemented by Edinburgh Napier University Centre for Interaction Design and Veemee, a digital design agency.

The data gathering process involved GPS, Photo/Video, interview, and a semantic word pair tool. Twelve users tested the software. We have found that moving and using a mobile phone relies heavily on experience. Also the use of public space poses different opportunities and threatens the UX. We think that designers should be aware of different aspects of spaces, people and technology in order to create a good experience involving movement.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    31 December 2014

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher

    Comon Ground Publishing

  • ISSN:


  • Library of Congress:

    QA76 Computer software

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    004 Data processing & computer science


Ayan, S., & Benyon, D. (2014). Designing blended spaces: historical echoes, testing a framework for digital tourism. International Journal of Architectonic, Spatial, and Environmental Design, 7(2), 1-12



Blended Spaces; HCI; Tourism; Audio; User Experience; Location Aware; Context Aware;

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