Research Output
Developing a woman‐centered, inclusive definition of positive childbirth experiences: A discussion paper
  Introduction: A positive childbirth experience promotes women’s health, both during and beyond the perinatal period. Understanding what constitutes a positive childbirth experience is thus critical to providing high-quality maternity care. Currently, there is no clear, inclusive, woman-centered definition of a positive childbirth experience to guide practice, education, and research.

Aim: To formulate an inclusive woman-centered definition of a positive childbirth experience.

Methods: A six-step process was undertaken: (a) Key concepts associated with a positive childbirth were derived from a rapid literature review; (b) The key concepts were used by interdisciplinary experts in the author group to create a draft definition; (c) The draft definition was presented to clinicians and researchers during a European research meeting on perinatal mental health; (d) The authors integrated the expert feedback to refine the working definition; (e) A revised definition was shared with women from consumer groups in six countries to confirm its face validity; and (f) A final definition was formulated based on the women’s feedback (n = 42).

Results: The following definition was formulated: “A positive childbirth experience refers to a woman’s experience of interactions and events directly related to childbirth that made her feel supported, in control, safe, and respected; a positive childbirth can make women feel joy, confident, and/or accomplished and may have short and/or long-term positive impacts on a woman’s psychosocial well-being.”

Conclusions: This inclusive, woman-centered definition highlights the importance of provider interactions for facilitating a positive childbirth experience. Feeling supported and having a sense of control, safety, and respect are central tenets. This definition could help to identify and validate positive childbirth experience(s), and to inform practice, education, research, advocacy, and policy-making.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    05 July 2022

  • Publication Status:

    In Press

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  • Funders:

    Edinburgh Napier Funded


Leinweber, J., Fontein‐Kuipers, Y., Karlsdottir, S. I., Ekström‐Bergström, A., Nilsson, C., Stramrood, C., & Thomson, G. (in press). Developing a woman‐centered, inclusive definition of positive childbirth experiences: A discussion paper. Birth,



Childbirth experience, definition, positive childbirth, provider interactions, subjective, woman-centred

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