Research Output

General and craniofacial development are complex adaptive processes influenced by diversity

  Complex systems are present in such diverse areas as social systems, economies, ecosystems and Biology and, therefore, are highly relevant to dental research, education and practice. A Complex Adaptive System in biological development is a dynamic process in which, from interacting Components at a lower level, higher level phenomena and structures emerge. Diversity makes Substantial contributions to the performance of Complex Adaptive Systems. It enhances the Robustness of the process, allowing multiple responses to external stimuli as well as internal changes. From Diversity comes variation in outcome and the possibility of major change; outliers in the distribution enhance the tipping points. The development of the dentition is a valuable, accessible model with extensive and reliable databases for investigating the role of Complex Adaptive Systems in craniofacial and general development. The general characteristics of such systems are seen during tooth development: self-organisation; bottom-up emergence; multitasking; self-adaptation; variation; tipping points; Critical phases; and robustness. Dental findings are compatible with the Random Network Model, the Threshold Model and also with the Scale Free Network Model which has a Power Law distribution. In addition, dental development shows the characteristics of Modularity and Clustering to form Hierarchical Networks. The interactions between the genes (nodes) demonstrate Small World phenomena, Subgraph Motifs and Gene Regulatory Networks. Genetic mechanisms are involved in the creation and evolution of variation during development. The genetic factors interact with epigenetic and environmental factors at the molecular level and form complex networks within the cells. From these interactions emerge the higher level tissues, tooth germs and mineralised teeth. Approaching development in this way allows investigation of why there can be variations in phenotypes from identical genotypes; the phenotype is the outcome of perturbations in the cellular systems and networks, as well as of the genotype.
Understanding and applying complexity theory will bring about substantial advances not only in dental research and education but also in the organisation and delivery of oral health care.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    12 March 2014

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher

    Wiley/Australian Dental Association

  • DOI:


  • ISSN:


  • Library of Congress:

    QA76 Computer software

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    006 Special Computer Methods


Hart, E., Brook, A. H., Brook-O'Donnell, M., Hone, A., Hughes, T., & Smith, R. (2014). General and craniofacial development are complex adaptive processes influenced by diversity. Australian Dental Journal, 59(S1), 13-22.



Complex systems; networks; dental development;

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