Research Output

Modeling transfer and non-linear fare structure in multi-modal network.

  In metropolitan areas where multi-modal trips are common, modeling transfers is an important issue. The existing approach of connecting multi-modal networks, without attending to the number or kinds of transfers, cannot fully describe actual behavior. In addition, the common practice of non-linear transit fare structures imposes certain modeling difficulties on the assignment approach. In this study, we develop a formulation to overcome these two difficulties, namely the number and kinds of transfers are explicitly considered and non-linear fare structures accommodated. Through a state augmentation technique, we
transform a multi-modal network to one we call state-augmented multi-modal (SAM) network. Once formulated, the SAM network behaves like a simple network and can be combined with traffic assignment or network analysis procedures. A numerical example is provided to illustrate this approach.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    01 May 2003

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher


  • DOI:


  • Cross Ref:


  • ISSN:



Lo, H. K., Wan, K., Lo, V., Yip, C., & Wan, Q. (2003). Modeling transfer and non-linear fare structure in multi-modal network. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 37(2), (149-170). doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(02)00005-X. ISSN 0191-2615


Urban transport; Multimodal trips; Non-linear transit; Fare structure models; Transfer data; State augmented multi-modal network; SAM; Examples;

Monthly Views:

Available Documents

  • Files currently unavailable for download , please contact to request a copy

  • Downloadable citations