Research Output

Orbits: gaze Interaction for smart watches using smooth pursuit eye movements.

  We introduce Orbits, a novel gaze interaction technique that enables hands-free input on smart watches. The technique relies on moving controls to leverage the smooth pursuit movements of the eyes and detect whether and at which control the user is looking at. In Orbits, controls include targets that move in a circular trajectory in the face of the watch, and can be selected by following the desired one for a small amount of time. We conducted two user studies to assess the technique's recognition and robustness, which demonstrated how Orbits is robust against false positives triggered by natural eye movements and how it presents a hands-free, high accuracy way of interacting with smart watches using off-the-shelf devices. Finally, we developed three example interfaces built with Orbits: a music player, a notifications face plate and a missed call menu. Despite relying on moving controls -- very unusual in current HCI interfaces -- these were generally well received by participants in a third and final study.

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher

    ACM Press

  • DOI:


  • Library of Congress:

    QA76 Computer software

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    004.2 Systems analysis, design & performance


Esteves, A., Velloso, E., Bulling, A. & Gellersen, H. (2014). Orbits: gaze Interaction for smart watches using smooth pursuit eye movements. In Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software & Technology, 457-466. doi:10.1145/2807442.2807499. ISBN 978-1-4503-3779-3



Orbits; novel gaze interaction technique; smart watches; smooth pursuit movements;

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