Research Output

Reducing the risk of Type 2 diabetes in people with intellectual disabilities: A three phase study

  Background:
People with intellectual disabilities (ID) remain at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to lifestyle associated risk factors such poor diets and low physical activity levels. Interventions have been adapted which target ongoing T2D self-management. However, there are no adapted programmes which prevent T2D through reducing risk factors. The present research project addresses this gap through a three-phase study on the existing literature, theoretical basis, and process evaluation of a T2D prevention programme.
Methods:
Phase 1: The literature reviews identified that the support needs of people with ID with T2D are currently not being met. Appropriate training needs to be delivered so that people with ID can self-manage or reduce the risk of T2D effectively. Given the early onset of T2D in people with ID and their often shorter lifespan, there is rationale for a preventative agenda in T2D education. Four potential mainstream intervention programmes were identified, and the self-efficacy model was found to be the most prevalent successfully implemented theoretical model. Phase 2: Nine sub-themes were identified following analysis of the data: 1) “Mastery through knowledge”; 2) “Mastery through tools and strategies”; 3) “Mastery through autonomy”; 4) “Influence of social setting”; 5) “Positive social comparisons”; 6) “Positive and negative self-statements”; 7) “Feedback from Caregivers”; 8) “Adjustment experiences”; 9) “Symptom awareness”. These were mapped onto Bandura’s (1977) Four Sources of efficacy enhancement model and were consistent
with its proposed mechanisms. The Four Sources model serves as a useful mode of enquiry for exploring people with ID’s experiences and perceptions of self-managing diabetes. It also confirms the appropriateness of ssself-efficacy as a potential intervention component for this population. However, additional support may be required for people with ID to reflect meaningfully on their experiences and thus have a sense of self-efficacy.
Phase3: 96% of invited students agreed to participate. The Walking Away programme was positively received, and some short-term impact was described, yet there were limitations to accessibility of the program due to the complexity of the language and materials. Suggestions for further adaptations regarding materials and content were provided, and there was perceived scope for a long-term implementation built into college curriculum.
Results:
Phase One: The literature reviews identified that the support needs of people with ID with T2D are currently not being met. Appropriate training needs to be delivered so that people with ID can self-manage or reduce the risk of T2D effectively. Given the early onset of T2D in people with ID and their often shorter lifespan, there is rationale for a preventative agenda in T2D education. Four potential mainstream intervention programmes were identified, and the self-efficacy model was found to be the most prevalent successfully implemented theoretical model. Phase Two: Nine sub-themes were identified following analysis of the data: 1) “Mastery through knowledge”; 2) “Mastery through tools and strategies”; 3) “Mastery
through autonomy”; 4) “Influence of social setting”; 5) “Positive social comparisons”; 6) “Positive and negative self-statements”; 7) “Feedback from Caregivers”; 8) “Adjustment experiences”; 9) “Symptom awareness”. These were mapped onto Bandura’s (1977) Four Sources of efficacy enhancement model and were consistent with its proposed mechanisms. The Four Sources model serves as a useful mode of enquiry for exploring people with ID’s experiences and perceptions of self-managing diabetes. It also confirms the appropriateness of self-efficacy as a potential intervention component for this population. However, additional support may be required for people with ID to reflect meaningfully on their experiences and thus have a sense of self-efficacy. Phase Three: 96% of invited students agreed to participate. The Walking Away programme was positively received, and some short-term impact was described, yet there were limitations to accessibility of the program due to the complexity of the language and materials. Suggestions for further adaptations regarding materials and content were provided, and there was perceived scope for a long-term implementation built into college curriculum. Phase Three: 96% of invited students agreed to participate. The Walking Away programme was positively received, and some short-term impact was described, yet there were limitations to accessibility of the program due to the complexity of the language and materials. Suggestions for further adaptations regarding materials and content were provided, and there was perceived scope for a long-term implementation built into college curriculum.
Conclusions:
The findings provide basis for a further trial incorporating the suggested adaptations. A self-efficacy informed prevention programme was highly acceptability to students and teaching staff. Further education colleges provided a supportive setting and yielded a rich sample.

  • Type:

    Thesis

  • Date:

    01 November 2018

  • Publication Status:

    Unpublished

  • Library of Congress:

    RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    613 Personal health & safety

  • Funders:

    Edinburgh Napier Funded

Citation

Maine, A. Reducing the risk of Type 2 diabetes in people with intellectual disabilities: A three phase study. (Thesis). Edinburgh Napier University. Retrieved from http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/Output/1510775

Authors

Keywords

T2D, intellectual disabilities, poor diets, physical activity, self-management, support

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