Research Output
Smart cities: Under-gridding the sustainability of city-districts as energy efficient-low carbon zones
  This paper reviews the literature on smart cities. Offering a critical synthesis of the material, it advances a Triple Helix inspired account of smart cities as future internet-based developments. In particular, as future internet-based developments covering the digital infrastructures, data management systems, renewable energies and cloud computing of a regional innovation in the Internet of Things (IoT). More specifically, as a regional innovation in the IoT that covers the morphology of urban extensions, infill and
mass retrofits, which smart cities call for the development of. Focusing on the metrics of mass retrofit proposals, the paper also serves to demonstrate how the urban morphology of such regional innovations matter in the sense they tell us that being aware of the considerable energy savings and CO2 reductions, which IoTs offer cities to be smart, is not enough. Not enough, because without knowing whether the costs and benefits under-gridding the sustainability of city-districts are shared equally, it is impossible to
say if the 65% energy saving and 78% reduction in CO2, attributed to the data collection, information processing and smart (micro) grids of mass retrofits is socially just. The paper suggests that in order to verify this, it is necessary for smart cities to first baseline the social-demographic structure of retrofit proposals. Then draw upon the environmental profile this evaluation generates to assess whether the regional innovation creates the wealth needed to under-grid the sustainability of city-districts. Undergrid the sustainability of city-districts as the energy efficient-low carbon zones of an inclusive growth strategy seen to be socially just. Seen to be socially just, because the costs and benefits underlying the 1.5 ha ecological footprint that surfaces from this regional innovation are equally appropriated as the proceeds of a wealth creation, which contributes to the resilience of city-districts as energy efficient-low carbon zones. As energy efficient-low carbon zones, whose inclusive growth strategy also emerges as a post-carbon economy claiming to be climate neutral.

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  • Date:

    22 December 2016

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  • Publisher

    Elsevier BV

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  • Library of Congress:

    HE Transportation and Communications


Deakin, M., & Reid, A. (2018). Smart cities: Under-gridding the sustainability of city-districts as energy efficient-low carbon zones. Journal of Cleaner Production, 173, 39-48.



Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment; Strategy and Management; Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering; Environmental Science(all)

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