Research Output
Statistical Fit is like Beauty: a Rasch and Factor Analysis of the Scottish PROM
  Chaplains help people face some of the most complex, intractable and traumatic issues in their lives. Spiritual care works. Unfortunately, spiritual needs are rarely met in health and social care because a) spiritual distress is not recognised as such, and b) chaplain interventions are undervalued and misunderstood. The Scottish Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM) © was created to help provide evidence for the impact of chaplain interventions. The aim of this study was to establish whether the PROM could also be used to identify patients in need of chaplain interventions. To test this psychometrically, Rasch and Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted on an international dataset of post intervention PROMS from UK, Europe and Australia completed between 2018–2020 (n = 1117). The data fit the Rasch model, and the PROM demonstrated uni-dimensionality, construct validity and reliability, meaning PROM scores represent a coherent concept. Higher scores represented lower levels of spiritual distress, and the mean score was 12 out of 20. PROM score of 9 was one standard deviation below the norm, a metric routinely used to identify ‘clinically important difference’ in psychometric scales. A Scottish PROM© score of 9 and under could therefore identify people for whom chaplaincy may be beneficial. The clinical implications of this are considerable.

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    26 May 2021

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  • Funders:

    NHS Education Scotland


Snowden, A., Karimi, L., & Tan, H. (2022). Statistical Fit is like Beauty: a Rasch and Factor Analysis of the Scottish PROM. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 28(3), 415-430.



Chaplain, confirmatory factor analysis, psychometrics, Rasch analysis, screening, spirituality

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