Research Output
The Challenge of Strength Grading UK Hardwoods
  Recent research in Europe is bringing a wider range of wood species to the construction market as structural timber and glue laminated products. This option would also open markets for currently underused UK species, foremost hardwoods, but testing efforts when developing strength grading assignments for any minor UK species are prohibitive, as the resource is small and scattered. Grading approaches that require less material for destructive testing could be employed to open routes to market for structural hardwood products. In addition, the European hardwood research has revealed some gaps and uncertainties in grading standards. In particular, data are lacking to support adjustment equations for size, moisture content, and testing arrangement for hardwoods. This paper outlines a new PhD project that will focus on these problems and aims to develop an easier route for strength grading hardwoods.

  • Type:

    Conference Paper

  • Date:

    21 December 2023

  • Publication Status:


  • DOI:


  • ISSN:


  • Funders:

    Forestry Commission England; Scottish Forestry Trust


Cramer, M. (in press). The Challenge of Strength Grading UK Hardwoods. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Series II: Forestry, Wood Industry, Agricultural Food Engineering, 16(65)(3), 39-52.



small clear testing, full-size testing, mechanical properties, EN 384, minor species

Monthly Views:

Linked Projects

Available Documents