Research Output

End effect on determining shear modulus of timber beams in torsion tests

  The end effect plays an important role in determining where the rotation measuring gauges should be located in a torsion test. A thorough review on the impact of end effect in a torsion test has been conducted, followed by an experimental validation. A close-ranged photogrammetric method using binocular stereo vision technique was employed in this study. The results have indicated that the end effect has a great impact on a region of 1.5 times the cross-sectional depth of the beam from the supports. Therefore, the distance between the gauges and the supports as specified in BS EN 408:2010+A1:2012 for the torsion test setup is not sufficient for the beams with slender cross-sections. This research has also indicated that it is more appropriate to use the depth of the beam as the referencing dimension to specify this required minimum distance.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    04 January 2018

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher

    Elsevier BV

  • DOI:


  • Cross Ref:


  • ISSN:


  • Library of Congress:

    TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    621 Electronic & mechanical engineering

  • Funders:

    Lawrence Ho Research Fund


Gharavi, N., Zhang, H., Xie, Y., & He, T. (2018). End effect on determining shear modulus of timber beams in torsion tests. Construction and Building Materials, 164, 442-450.



Saint-Venant’s end effect, Structural-size torsion test, Timber beam’s shear modulus, Photogrammetry, binocular stereo vision

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