Research Output
Evaluation of microwave square ring metamaterial-based resonator for glucose detection
  This study presents a biosensor working at a frequency of 3.5 GHz, which is designed as a square ring metamaterial resonator. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of blood amount on the metamaterial-based resonator sensor’s sensitivity. The structure was constructed using Rogers-RT5880 material, with an overall area of 85.71 mm × 85.71 mm2. The simulation of the design involved modelling the blood samples using Debye 1st-order equations. The empirical results observed a noticeable shift towards a lower frequency range in the response and changes in the magnitude, corresponding to an increase in the blood sample’s glucose concentration and thickness. Following this, the experiment was designed to corroborate the simulated results. The sensor achieved the highest sensitivity of 0.23 dB per 100 mg/dl change in glucose level when the thickness of blood was 0.1 mm. It was concluded from the results that the increase in the volume of blood increases the sensor’s sensitivity. However, a trade-off mark is necessary in which an optimum sensitivity is achieved with blood volume as minimum as possible so that a noninvasive biosensor can be designed.

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  • Date:

    05 March 2024

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  • Funders:

    Pusat Pengurusan Penyelidikan, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia


Mustafa Kamal, M. H., Qureshi, S. A., Zainal Abidin, Z., Majid, H. A., & See, C. H. (2024). Evaluation of microwave square ring metamaterial-based resonator for glucose detection. Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 71, Article 66.



Metamaterial, Resonator, Glucose, Sensing

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