Research Output
Generating and Evaluating Landmark-Based Navigation Instructions in Virtual Environments
  Referring to landmarks has been identified to lead to improved navigation instructions. However, a previous corpus study suggests that human “wizards” also choose to refer to street names and generate user-centric instructions. In this paper, we conduct a task-based evaluation of two systems reflecting the wizards’ behaviours and compare them against an improved version of previous landmark based systems, which resorts to user-centric descriptions if the landmark is estimated to be invisible. We use the GRUVE virtual interactive environment for evaluation. We find that the improved system, which takes visibility into account, outperforms the corpus-based wizard strategies,however not significantly. We also show a significant effect of prior user knowledge, which suggests the usefulness of a user modelling approach.

  • Date:

    10 September 2015

  • Publication Status:


  • Publisher

    Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL)

  • DOI:


  • Library of Congress:

    QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    006.3 Artificial intelligence

  • Funders:

    Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council


Cercas Curry, A., Gkatzia, D., & Rieser, V. (2015). Generating and Evaluating Landmark-Based Navigation Instructions in Virtual Environments. In Proceedings of the 15th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation, 90-94.



Natural Language Generation, NLG, Giving Route Instructions in Uncertain Virtual Environments, GRUVE.

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