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Rapid changes in the surface of parasitic nematodes during transition from pre- to post-parasitic forms

  All mammalian-parasitic stages of a range of nematode species investigated (Brugia pahangi, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Strongyloides ratti, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Trichinella spiralis and Ostertagia ostertagi) labelled in a surface-restricted manner with the fluorescent lipid analogues 5-N-(octadecanoyl)aminofluorescein (AF18) or nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-chol), but failed to bind other similar probes. In contrast, the surfaces of the ‘pre-parasitic’ infective stages of these species had affinity for neither AF18 nor NBD-chol. This exclusion of lipid analogues changed rapidly upon exposure of the larvae to tissue culture conditions which mimic the mammalian tissue environment (e.g. RPMI 1640/37°C) such that the above probes could then insert into the surface layer of the larvae. The dauer larva of Caenorhabditis elegans also excluded the probes, but became permissive to labelling upon stimulation to emerge from the dauer state. The time taken for the surface transformation to occur ranged from less than 10 min in the vector-borne parasites to approximately 5 h in those which enter by the oral route, with direct skin-penetrators occupying an intermediate position. In all cases, the alteration proceeded too rapidly for it to have been associated with a moult. Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) studies of A. viteae larvae showed that approximately 50% of the AF18 probe was free to diffuse within the plane of the surface immediately after transformation. This is only a transitory state because AF18 was found to be highly restricted in its lateral diffusion on the surface of adult parasites. In the larvae of S. ratti, the change in affinity for AF18 was accompanied by the rapid shedding of an otherwise stable surface coat of polyanionic material, here visualized by labelling with fluorescein-conjugated cationized ferritin. Incubation of larvae in lipid-rich host serum during the induction of transformation inhibited subsequent labelling with AF 18. This possibly reflects competition for insertion sites and an in vivo propensity towards the acquisition of host lipid by invading parasites.

  • Type:

    Article

  • Date:

    31 July 1993

  • Publication Status:

    Published

  • Publisher

    Cambridge University Press (CUP)

  • DOI:

    10.1017/s0031182000079464

  • Cross Ref:

    S0031182000079464

  • ISSN:

    0031-1820

  • Library of Congress:

    QD415-436 Biochemistry

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    572 Biochemistry

Citation

Proudfoot, L., Kusel, J. R., Smith, H. V., Harnett, W., Worms, M. J., & Kennedy, M. W. (1993). Rapid changes in the surface of parasitic nematodes during transition from pre- to post-parasitic forms. Parasitology, 107(01), 107. doi:10.1017/s0031182000079464

Authors

Keywords

fluorescent lipid probes, Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching, Brugia pahangi, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Strongyloides ratti, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Trichinella spiralis, Ostertagia ostertagi, Caenorhabditis elegans

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