Research Output

The Role of Interactive Technology in the Co-creation of Experience in Scottish Visitor Attractions

  As a theoretical construct, co-creation has received significant attention in the service management field and is increasingly being applied to experiential industries such as tourism. Central to this emerging body of knowledge, is the presence of technology as a mediator in the co-creation of experience. As an experientially-driven sector, visitor attractions (VAs) are increasingly using technology in their interpretative provision however there is a surprising lack of research that questions the use of technology as a mediator in the VA experience and equally, its role in the co-creation of visitor experiences. This study, rooted in the constructivist paradigm, draws on two main areas of research: experiential co-creation theory and interactive technology in VAs, to provide a contribution to VA management research with wider implications for tourism scholarship. Semi-structured interviews with VA managers and visitors were used in four Scottish VAs to explore the role and application of interactive technology in various exhibitions. These sites encapsulate heritage and science-based VA products which traditionally utilise technology as part of their interpretation. The findings of this research indicate a series of management challenges and issues driving technology-adoption in VAs, coupled with a variety of visitor perceptions and determinants that govern how visitors engage with technologies in exhibition spaces. It is argued that the factors of both ‘actors’ within the service relationship have a significant impact on the co-creation of technology-mediated experiences. This research therefore syntheses these influencing factors and identifies an emergent ‘Technology-mediated Co-creative Experience Interface’ with four ‘building blocks’ to encourage successful experiential co-creation in technology-mediated spaces (Active Dialogue, Personalisation, Equitable Resource Integration, and Multi-sensory Engagement). The output of this study brings together the various influencing factors into a conceptual model that provides a valuable contribution to knowledge and associated management practice in VA research.

  • Type:


  • Date:

    05 July 2019

  • Publication Status:


  • Library of Congress:

    G155 Tourism

  • Dewey Decimal Classification:

    338.4791 Tourist industry

  • Funders:

    Edinburgh Napier Funded


Urquhart, E. A. The Role of Interactive Technology in the Co-creation of Experience in Scottish Visitor Attractions. (Thesis). Edinburgh Napier University. Retrieved from



tourism; interactive technology; visitor attractions; co-creation of experiences

Monthly Views:

Available Documents