Research Output
Novel Deep Convolutional Neural Network-Based Contextual Recognition of Arabic Handwritten Scripts
  Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition (OAHR) has recently become instrumental in the areas of pattern recognition and image processing due to its application in several fields, such as office automation and document processing. However, OAHR continues to face several challenges, including the high variability of the Arabic script and its intrinsic characteristics such as cursiveness, ligatures, and diacritics, the unlimited variation in human handwriting, and the lack of large public databases. In this paper, we have introduced a novel context-aware model based on deep neural networks to address the challenges of recognizing offline handwritten Arabic text, including isolated digits, characters, and words. Specifically, we have proposed a supervised Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model that contextually extracts optimal features and employs batch normalization and dropout regularization parameters to prevent overfitting and further enhance its generalization performance when compared to conventional deep learning models. We employed numerous deep stacked-convolutional layers to design the proposed Deep CNN (DCNN) architecture. The proposed model was extensively evaluated, and it was observed to achieve excellent classification accuracy when compared to the existing state-of-the-art OAHR approaches on a diverse set of six benchmark databases, including MADBase (Digits), CMATERDB (Digits), HACDB (Characters), SUST-ALT (Digits), SUST-ALT (Characters), and SUST-ALT (Names). Further comparative experiments were conducted on the respective databases using the pre-trained VGGNet-19 and Mobile-Net models; additionally, generalization capabilities experiments on another language database (i.e., MNIST English Digits) were conducted, which showed the superiority of the proposed DCNN model.

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  • Date:

    13 March 2021

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  • Funders:

    Edinburgh Napier Funded


Ahmed, R., Gogate, M., Tahir, A., Dashtipour, K., Al-tamimi, B., Hawalah, A., …Hussain, A. (2021). Novel Deep Convolutional Neural Network-Based Contextual Recognition of Arabic Handwritten Scripts. Entropy, 23(3),



Arabic handwritten; batch normalization; DCNN; dropout; databases

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